GIBBS, James

GIBBS, James
   James Gibbs is best known for his monumental churches in London, as well as for his successful blending of Renaissance and Baroque architectural elements into an early-18th-century Neo-Classicism. Born a Catholic in Scotland, Gibbs revealed himself very early on as an excellent draftsman. He went on to study in Rome with the Late Baroque Italian architect Carlo Fontana. When Gibbs returned to London, he received a position as a surveyor to help with the planned construction of 50 new churches in London. His first commission for this project was the Church of Saint Mary-le-Strand in 1714. In 1722-1726, Gibbs constructed his most famous church, Saint Martin-in-the-Fields, in London. This building reveals the integration of a Palladian portico front with a basilica church plan, which has a spire rather than a dome rising from the roof of the building. This type of spire was widely copied across Europe in the 18th century and became popular in New England as well during the subsequent century. In 1728, Gibbs's Book of Architecture was first published, and in 1732, the publication of his Rules for Drawing the Several Parts of Architecture provided an English-language architectural manual used widely in England and the United States.
   His most famous building, the Radcliffe Camera, was constructed in 1739-1749 in Oxford to house the university's science library. While the English architect Nicholas Hawksmoor can be credited with the idea for a round building, Gibbs created a beautiful fusion of Renaissance and Baroque features in this unique structure. The three-part design consists of a rusticated ground level topped by a two-story central section articulated with paired columns alternating with two registers of windows, which is then topped by a balustrade and then a dome capped by a spire. Highly sculptural, this building recalls the general classical column order in its overall layout, while its round design echoes the format of Donato Bramante's small Tempietto, built in Rome in 1502. This building best embodies James Gibbs's desire to blend Renaissance classicism with Baroque grandeur into a more modern English context.

Historical Dictionaries of Literature and the Arts. . 2008.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gibbs, James — ▪ British architect born Dec. 23, 1682, Footdeesmire, Aberdeenshire, Scot. died Aug. 5, 1754, London       Scottish architect whose synthesis of Italian and English modes, exemplified in his church of St. Martin in the Fields, London, set a… …   Universalium

  • James Gibbs — (* 23. Dezember 1682 in Aberdeen; † 5. August 1754 in London[1]) war ein schottischer Architekt. Nach einer ersten Ausbildung in seiner Heimatstadt ging er nach Rom, um d …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • GIBBS (J.) — GIBBS JAMES (1682 1754) Parmi les architectes anglais de son temps, James Gibbs est l’un des moins soumis à la stricte observance des canons palladiens. Moins inspiré que Nicholas Hawksmoor, il sait cependant élaborer un style très personnel qui… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Gibbs free energy — Thermodynamics …   Wikipedia

  • James Howard McGrath — J. Howard McGrath (Zweiter von rechts) mit US Präsident Harry S. Truman (rechts) und Senator Theodore Francis Green (Zweiter von links). James Howard McGrath (* 28. November 1903 in Woonsocket, Rhode Island; † 2 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Gibbs — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gibbs. James Gibbs (23 décembre 1682 5 août 1754) était un architecte britannique. Né en Écosse, il étudia l architecture à Rome. Ses principales réalisations de style georgien sont l église St Martin in the… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Gibbs — (1682 1754) was one of Britain s most influential architects. Born in Scotland, he trained as an architect in Rome, and practised mainly in England. His most important works are St Martin in the Fields, in London, and the cylindrical Radcliffe… …   Wikipedia

  • James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos — PC (6 January 1673 – 9 August 1744) was the first of fourteen children by Sir James Brydges, 3rd Baronet of Wilton Castle, Sheriff of Herefordshire, 8th Lord Chandos; and Elizabeth Barnard. Three days after his father s death on 16 October 1714,… …   Wikipedia

  • James Dennis Hamlin — Jr. Geboren: 19. November 1980 Geburtsort: USA …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Dennis Hamlin Jr. — James Dennis Hamlin Jr. Geboren: 19. November 1980 Geburtsort: USA …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”